Many countries and regions after the Cold War witnessed a state of insecurity and instability, and among these regions is the Mediterranean region, which includes developed countries in the north and marginalized and backward countries in the south, but the new security threats in the southern Mediterranean have direct repercussions on European security, and these threats appear to be different and different in shape, and share in terms of their source, that are represented by challenges of social and economic dimensions, such as illegal immigration, terrorism, and failed states. … This prompted the European Union to adopt policies to achieve security on the basis of comprehensive security in which state actors and non-state actors participate. Therefore, efforts are made to achieve security stability in the Mediterranean in partnership between a group of actors and bodies. With the increasing severity of the security risks facing the Sahel countries, the European Union presented a comprehensive strategy based on security and development pillars to confront the current security challenges and deal with them in this region.
Keywords: Mediterranean region; Security challenges; Comprehensive security approach; European Union.